Collective Forms in China: A Contemporary Review

New Architecture 180 (October 2018) – Special Issue | 新建筑

Guest edited by Sam Jacoby, Jingru (Cyan) Cheng | 程婧如 , Gangyi Tan | 谭刚毅

20世纪50至80年代,中国通过人民公社和单位制度对其人口实行强制性的集体化和工业化,其目的是 进行社会和空间重组,增强社会主义新中国的国力,实现中国的现代化。这两种“集体形制”与全面制度化 以及新的生产、治理模式相吻合,使社会和空间规模及组织方式上发生了根本性的变化,由此重新定义了工 人、农民、家庭和国家之间的关系。它为当今中国的城乡奠定了基础,其影响仍清晰可见。

将人民公社与单位看作中国集体化时期以来深刻改造中国社会的两种社会、政治、经济和空间模式的 中国集体形制研究,旨在探究其作为社会项目的构想及其所铸就的社会现实,以及这一被忽略的遗产在建 筑和城市设计话语中的意义与应用。同时,该研究不仅仅针对中国集体化时期的遗产,而且更广泛地关注 各种过去、现在、未来由集体主体性所塑造的社会空间形制,着眼于理解和分析这种形制背后为了实现共 同目标和利益而生成的共享规则和诉求。换句话说,集体形制是由特定人群及其具体的共享空间和活动来 定义的。因此,集体形制既是管理体系,也是社会模式、组织机制和空间形式,甚至也可包括经济与政治模型。

基于这样的理解,本期专栏力图涵盖对集体形制多重角度的解读与案例研究。开篇针对集体形制的两篇综述 (萨姆·雅各比、程婧如;谭刚毅) 之后,王德福从社会学的角度解释了集体的内涵、功能、形成、变迁与遗产,案例研究涉及苗族村寨 (汤诗旷)、人民公社 (程婧如)、工人新村 (梁智勇)、单位 (肖作鹏、刘天宝、柴彦威)、后单位时代城市社区(冯路、郑湘竹),以及对未来中国单元的设想 (王禹惟)。

尽管国内已对集体概念范畴内的单位、三线建设等进行了一定的研究,但“集体形制”这一中译概念则是由萨姆·雅各比和程婧如明确提出。他们发起并主持了2016与2017年在中国武汉举办的两届同主题工作坊 (由英国建筑联盟学院和中国华中科技大学建筑与城市规划学院联合组织,并得到谭刚毅教授的鼎力支持)。中国集体形制的后续研究目前由英国国家学术院 (British Academy)支持,研究课题为《集体形制:中国街区转型、治理空间化和新型社 区》(Collective Forms: Neighbourhood Transformations, Spatialised Governmentality and New Communities in China)。本次专栏将为解读中国城乡形态提供一个独特的视角,也将思考空间形态的更多属性,甚或创造性地提出集体空间(collective space)概念,补公共-私密空间之缺或丰富其层级。研究将建立过去城乡社会单元与今日街区、社区的历史关联,或将唤醒关于某种集体的生活方式,甚至某种社会制度下的城乡形态的探索。

专栏导读
Introduction

Sam Jacoby 程婧如 (Jingru Cyan Cheng) 谭刚毅 (Gangyi Tan)

中国集体形制——人民公社与单位
Collective Forms in China: People’s Commune and Danwei

Sam Jacoby 程婧如 (Jingru Cyan Cheng)

集体形制是管理体系、社会模式、组织机制和空间形式的集合体,亦可涵盖经济与政治模型。从这个角度来看,社会主义中国城乡的规划与管理均通过半自治的集体形制实现。其中典型案例即中国的人民公社与单位。研究讨论了它们作为社会项目的构想及其所铸就的社会现实,以及这一被忽略的遗产在建筑和城市设计话语中的意义与应用。通过梳理该研究的源起与方法、西方历史上的集体形制案例、中国人民公社与单位的历史语境,以及两个位于武汉的建成案例,文章最后提出对集体形制的研究不仅仅是针对中国集体化时期的遗产,而是更广泛地关注各种过去、现在、未来由集体主体性所塑造的社会空间形制,着重于理解和分析这种形制背后为了实现共同目标和利益而生成的共享规则和诉求。

Collective forms are simultaneously governmental forms, social forms, organisational forms, and spatial forms, but can also incorporate economic forms or political forms. From this perspective, urban and rural areas in socialist China were predominantly planned and managed as semi-autonomous collective forms. People’s Commune and Danwei are two exemplary cases among others. The research reviews their conception as social projects and the social realities they produced, while examining their often overlooked legacies for discourses in architecture and urban design. Through discussing the research methodology, cases of collective forms in the West, the historical context of China’s People’s Commune and Danwei, and two built cases in Wuhan, this paper argues that collective forms are not simply related to a historical period of collectivisation, but to past, present, and future forms shaped by collective subjectivities and the important underlying shared norms and demands to achieve common goals and benefits.

中国集体形制及其建成环境与空间意志探隐
Retrospect of the Built Environment and Space Will in Chinese Collective Forms

谭刚毅 (Gangyi Tan)

选取“单位”大院、人民公社和“三线建设”的厂矿院所等建国后30年最具特点的城乡聚落等建成环境作为研究对象,探析形态、空间及其意义等建筑的基本问题。这些传统社会主义时期明显受行政意志影响的集体形制多是按照公平主义原则和严格计划而建设,其建成环境与空间具有物质、政治、经济和社会等多重属性。这些逐渐远去的集体形制是国家和时代的重要记忆,其遗产化的研究已经迫在眉睫。集体形制古今中外均有表现,文章探讨了其研究方法和研究价值。

Environment, space, form and meaning are the basic problems of architecture. This paper chooses the most characteristic urban and rural forms and settlements in the three decades after the founding of P.R. China as the research object, which include the Danwei, the People’s Communes and the factories and institutes of the Third Front Construction. It clearly declares that they are collective forms affected by the administrative will and built according to the fair principle and strict plan in the traditional socialist period. The paper discusses the built environment, space and their physical, political, economic and social properties. Although these collective forms are gradually gone, they are so important memories of the country and the times that they should be conserved as modern heritage. Collective forms exist at all times and all over the world, and they are therefore worth to be investigated through interdisciplinary integration.

组织起来办小事——理解农村集体制的一个视角
Get Organized to Do Small Things: An Understanding of the Rural Collective System

王德福 (Defu Wang)

作为社会主义实践的产物,“集体”重塑了中国农村的社会单元,深刻影响了农民的认同与行为逻辑。从“集体”的内涵、功能、形成、变迁与遗产等方面,系统探讨了农村集体制的社会学意义,提出“组织起来办小事”的认识视角,揭示了“集体”在连接国家与农民关系上的关键作用。

As a product of socialist practice, the“collective”has remade the social unit of rural China and deeply influenced the farmers’identification and behavioral logic. This article, from the collective’s connotation, function, formation, change, heritage, and so on, systematically discusses the sociological significance of the rural collective system, puts forward the understanding perspective of“Getting organized to do small things”, and reveals the key role of the collective in connecting the government with the peasants.

族群与个体:苗族公共空间和住居单元中的集体观念
Ethnic Groups and Individuals: Collective Concept in the Public Space and Dwelling Unit of the Miao Ethnic Group

汤诗旷 (Shikuang Tang)

通过大量文献研究与田野调查,从村寨公共空间和个体居住单元两个层面考察苗族集体生活和集体意识对空间的影响机制。从表征鼓社、宗族、家庭等各族群层级的祭祖、婚恋、祭鬼等集体活动场所以及作为基层单元的火塘空间展开论述,试图证明苗族的住居空间与苗乡社群关系紧密适配并取得阶序化的对应关系,其室内外空间也存在内在统一,并具有一定的地域性、社会性和缓变性,最终成为族群集体意志和民族特征的体现。

Based on a great deal of literature research and field investigations, this paper studies the influence mechanism of Miao’s collective life and collective consciousness on space from two levels of village public ritual fields and individual residential unit. The paper also discusses the collective activities and ceremonial venues, such as ancestor worship, marriage, ghost worship, and the space of fire pond as a basic unit, representing the hierarchy of drum clubs, clans and families, so as to prove that the residential space of the Miao ethnic group is closely adapted to the ethnic relations and the correspondence is hierarchized. Indoor and outdoor spaces are unified, and have regional, social and constant characteristics, which are supposed to be the embodiment of the collective will and national characteristics of the ethnic group eventually.

作为政治宣言的空间设计——1958—1960中国人民公社设计提案
Spatial Design as Political Manifesto: The Design Proposals of China’s People’s Commune 1958-1960

程婧如 (Jingru Cyan Cheng)

中国集体化时期人民公社制度的推行对探索新的空间组织模式和社会空间图解提出了要求也提供了契机。论文重点关注1958到1960年间发表的人民公社海报与设计提案。这些设计提案从区域、居住地和家户三个层面力图将公社制度空间化,通过对日常生活实践的系统化设计,构建可对居住者进行主体性重构的物理空间——将传统乡村文化语境里的农民转变为集体化语境里的公社成员。同时力图削弱甚至取代乡村社会中的传统家庭观念与宗法制度, 从而合法化新的国家权威。因此,这些空间设计提案本身亦是人民公社运动的政治宣言。

China’s People’s Commune system implemented during the country’s collectivisation era put forward new demands as well as opportunities for exploring new organisation models and socio-spatial diagrams. This paper focuses on propaganda posters and spatial design proposals published between 1958 and 1960. The ultimate task of planning and designing People’s Communes was to spatialise the state institution at levels of territory, settlement and household, and to create the condition for habitation wherein the subjectivity of its inhabitants can be reconstructed-transforming peasants into members of the commune through the systematic arrangement of the practice of everyday life. These commune proposals were to significantly undermine the idea of family and patriarchal clan authority deeply rooted in the Chinese rural society in order to legitimise the new socialist regime. In this regards, the spatial design of the People’s Commune were themselves political manifesto of the commune movement.

成为“完整的人”——20世纪初期上海基督教青年会的“模范村”探索
Becoming A “Complete Man”: YMCA Pudong Workers’ Model Village and the Practice of “Model Village” in the Early 20th Century

梁智勇 (Calvin Ziyong Liang)

“模范村”是一种出现在20世纪初期的工人阶级集体居住模式。文章以上海基督教青年会(YMCA)浦东劳工模范村——上海20年代开拓性的劳工住房项目为例,探讨青年会对理想“劳工生活”的不同想象与如何塑造“模范村”的实践。“模范村”试图通过对工人阶级住宅与教育的改良,调整和稳固资本主义经济下的劳资关系。研究认为,浦东劳工模范村中健康居住环境与“完全的人格”教育的结合是年轻专才与慈善家对中国急速资本主义城市化下对理想劳工关系的共同探索成果。他们相信只有工人阶级拥有经济与精神上的独立自主,社会发展才能惠及大众,而提供设计完善的居所并结合完整的教育是达致这一目标最有效途径。

The“model village”emerged in the early 20th century China as a form of collective dwelling for the working class. This paper explores how contesting imaginations and narratives of the ideal life of workers shaped the practice of“model villages”, through the case of YMCA Pudong Workers’Model Village (Pudong Village) – one of the pioneering working class housing projects in the 1920s Shanghai. The“model village”was an attempt to adjust and stabilise labour relations under the existing capitalist economy through the improvement of housing and education for the working class. The author argues that the combination of healthy housing and the education of a“complete man”of the Pudong Village was a concerted effort of young Chinese professionals and philanthropists in response to accelerating capitalist urbanisation in China. A shared belief was that capitalist development could only benefit the majority when the working class was made morally economically competent to stand on their own feet; and this could be effectively achieved by the provision of well-designed dwellings incorporating complete educational programmes in their daily life.

中国单位制度空间范型的探索性分析
Institutional Spatial Prototype of China’s Danwei System: An Exploratory Analysis

肖作鹏 (Zuopeng Xiao) 刘天宝 (Tianbao Liu) 柴彦威 (Yanwei Cai)

单位制度是自新中国成立后60多年社会主义建设的重要制度,也是理解中国城市转型的钥匙。不同学科都致力于单位制度的研究,关于单位制度的范型也是众说纷纭,令人莫衷一是。对比世界各地类似“企业办社会”的制度实践,单位制度之范型可以理解为,或者说单位制度深层指向的是,城市公共产品的组织化供给。这种供给方式产生和存在具有一定理论与实践的合理性。单位制度存在单位与外部体系、单位内部的生产生活循环的过程。中国的单位制度实践就是这种组织化供给方式与社会主义建设、公有制、国家全能主义深度结合以及脱钩的过程。单位制度留下的思想值得重新审视,并应探寻在新的社会经济条件下应用的可能性。

Danwei system is a crucial system that witnessed last six decades national construction and development. Due to this importance, Danwei system is the foremost important key for understanding China’s ongoing market transition. Nevertheless, there is no consensus on the institutional prototype of Danwei system among disciplines with respect to Danwei studies. Focusing on the practices that run social obligations and welfare, the institutional spatial prototype of Danwei system can be summarized as the organized provision of urban pubic goods. The theoretical and practical reasonability that supported this practice existed, run and spread in different contexts. Multiple cycles, namely, Danwei system and the outside socioeconomic system, inside production-life cycle, have been conceptually portrayed within each Danwei compound. This institutional practice of Danwei system during the last two-stages period is a process that this organized provision practice integrated and then decoupled with socialist construction, public ownership system and national totalism. In view of the new socioeconomic context, it is necessary to re-consider the legacy of Danwei system and its implications for ongoing society construction.

后集体主义时代的航运新村
Hangyun New Village in the Age of Post-Collectivism

冯路 (Lu Feng) 郑湘竹 (Xiangzu Zheng)

航运新村位于上海市青浦区盈浦街道,是建设于20世纪70年代的工人新村。集体主义时期,航运新村是改善居住条件的单位宿舍,也是“单位”作为一种体制的空间投射。在单位瓦解之后的当下,它的居住环境变成了需要解决的社会难题。通过对谈介绍了航运新村的空间环境、居民身份和生活状况的历史转变;讨论了当前困境发生的原因、背景和状况,以及社区改良的可能性。

Hangyun New Village, located in the Qingpu District of Shanghai, is a Workers’ Village built in the 1970s. This essay focuses on the historical transformation of Hangyun on the aspects of spatial environment, residents’identity and their everyday life. In the age of collectivism, Hangyun was built as a unit dormitory to improve workers’living condition, and also as a spatial projection of the mechanism of Danwei. After the disorganization of Hangyun’s Danwei, with its run-down living environment, Hangyun became a social problem. The essay discusses the reason, background and current situation of its problem, and the potential of improvement for the community.

中国单元——下一代基础设施
Chinese Unit: The Infrastructure of the Next Generation

王禹惟 (Yuwei Wang)

中国社会与城市的建构自古以来就依赖于框架。从四合院到单位大院,框架塑造着群体的概念也定义着每个人的身份。然而在今天的语境下,框架本身已经丧失了操控人们生活的能力,取而代之的是容纳人们生活的容器与链接容器的基础设施。面对城市化所引发的种种问题,提出回归到介于家与城市之间的中型尺度,重新把社会定义成一个个群体。然重新组织群体的方式不再依赖于框架,而是依靠服务节点式的第三种中国单元。

Chinese society and city were structured relying on frameworks. From traditional courtyard house to Soviet work unit, frameworks shaped the idea of group and defined every individual within groups. However in today’s context, framework itself has lost the power to manipulate citizens’life. In the meantime, countless residential or working containers connected by huge scale infrastructures have dominated the city. To deal with the issues of urbanization, I propose a middle scale society in between of the concept of family and city, which could again define the population into groups. This strategy would not rely on frameworks anymore, but on the third Chinese unit — a serving urban point.